Refraction in a sentence as a noun

"[I]t's a bit of a stretch to say that they've rewritten the rules of refraction."Indeed.

You can also use refraction to "bounce" HF radio waves off the ionosphere to mask the source.

Yes, there is an index of refraction for gravitational waves passing through matter.

Simple refraction of sunlight, explains Moser, as he fills an empty two-litre plastic bottle.

You compensate for drift during your measurements, for dip and refraction, you solve the equations for several celestial bodies etc.

Probably not how it was done, but is it possible to craft a bottle in such a way that the refraction index makes the content appear larger than it actually is?

Just off the cuff, though, the speed of sound is lower at low temperature, so refraction of a sound wave in the upper atmosphere will tend to bend it outward, away from the Earth.

Interesting stuff, but to me it's a bit of a stretch to say that they've rewritten the rules of refraction, since the basic laws assume ideal interfaces between media.

Most old lenses are not achromat or apochromat, so different wavelengths of light get refracted with different indices of refraction.

Ionospheric refraction increases path lengths between users and satellites.

The cornea, not the lens, supplies the majority of the eye's refraction, so I would be surprised if this worked for people with any substantial amount of refractive error.

Most issues with movable walls had nothing to do with their absorption profile but rather poor installation/fitting causing 1/4" air gaps around the edges creating a perfect refraction and / or reflection path for sound.

That's where the distinction between gas and liquid vanishes -- the viscosity, index of refraction, etc of one phase approach those of the other until differences vanish altogether at the critical point.

The BBC article mentioned refraction, but Iceland Spar makes it possible to see the direction of polarization of skylight, which means it could be used on small, clear patches of sky on an otherwise overcast day to find the direction to the sun.

[2] I am basing my reasoning on a formal analogy between linearized gravity and the Poisson equation, it may be that it would turn out that refraction can not exist via a more subtle argument, like any such device would collapse into a black hole or something.

Refraction definitions


the change in direction of a propagating wave (light or sound) when passing from one medium to another


the amount by which a propagating wave is bent

See also: deflection deflexion